The US Republican presidential candidate's fleeting visit to Mexico is likely to have lasting repercussions, as Mexicans question President Enrique Pena Nieto's judgement in meeting Trump in the capital.
Leading historian Enrique Krauze also addressed Trump in a tweek, saying "We Mexicans expect nothing less than an apology for calling us "criminals and rapists".
Pena Nieto suggested there was room to improve the trade deal, which Trump described as unfair to American workers.
"That's for a later date", Trump said standing on stage with Nieto.
Pena Nieto has been sharply critical of Trump's immigration policies, particularly the Republican's plans to build a wall and have Mexico pay for it. Nora Alvarez and her children listen closely to what they had to say.
He is perplexed that Pena Nieto extended an invitation to Trump, saying, "If I had a neighbour who was kicking at my door and verbally abusing my family, I wouldn't invite them into my home".
Trump stressed the need to secure the US-Mexico border with a "physical wall", but did not signal whether he still favors deporting all undocumented immigrants living in the US.
"This is an irrational act by two politicians with image problems", said Mexico City security analyst Raul Benitez. "But getting into the details in negotiations about paying for the wall, it really was't that kind of a meeting", Pence said.
"Donald Trump has made his outlandish policy of forcing Mexico to pay for his giant wall the centerpiece of his campaign".
Trump's hastily scheduled trip came less than 24 hours after he announced he had accepted an invitation from Pena Nieto to visit to discuss the U.S.
"The American people are going to see more clearly that there's one candidate in this race who's prepared to take the steps necessary to end the flood of illegal immigration", Trump's running mate, Indiana Gov. Mike Pence, said Wednesday on CNN.
He acknowledged however they did not discuss who would foot the bill, despite Trump persistently stating throughout his campaign that Mexico would bear the financial burden for the highly controversial project. Trump was accompanied by Alabama Sen. The two sides met in private for more than an hour and offered joint statements afterward, followed by a brief press conference.
"We all share a common interest in keeping our hemisphere safe, prosperous and free", Trump said in remarks after the meeting.
Pena Nieto claimed that weapons and cash flow south in the drug trade, creating violence in his country. He has also accused Mexico of cheating the United States on trade.
Trump said the pair discussed "five shared goals", and that number one was ending illegal immigration. "And I happen to have a tremendous feeling for Mexican Americans not only in terms of friendships, but in terms of the tremendous numbers that I employ in the United States and they are wonderful people, awesome people", he said. "My priority as president is to protect Mexicans wherever they may be. But then he also respects it's a complex issue", Conway said in an interview with MSNBC.
Many Mexicans felt the Republican candidate had left Pena Nieto flat-footed by accepting an invitation the Mexican president had made simply for appearances' sake.
But in a whirlwind of tweets and media speculation, Trump arrived on Wednesday afternoon at the Benito Juarez International Airport and was whisked in a helicopter to the presidential residence, known as Los Pinos.
On his verified Twitter page, President Peña tweeted, in Spanish, that his country will not pay for the wall, should it be built.
He remains deeply unpopular with Hispanic voters.
Removing visa overstays would a "top priority" of the Trump administration, which would choose immigrants "based on merit, skill and proficiency", he said, before asking the audience: "Doesn't that sound nice?" Immigration hardliners have labeled anything short of automatic deportation a form of "amnesty" that will only serve as incentive for more immigrants to cross the border illegally to live in the United States.
The speech hadn't started when Northern Virginia Latino leaders working with Hillary Clinton's campaign released a statement slamming Trump.