Beijing's edict, delivered by China's top leadership in August 2014, was that all the people of Hong Kong would be able to vote for their city leader - but only after a nominating committee loyal to Beijing selected the candidates.
Since Hong Kong returned to Chinese rule in 1997, Beijing has gradually increased control over the territory. Her unpopular former boss, Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying, had been mocked as "689" for his own low vote total before ultimately deciding not to seek a second term.
"China promised that Hong Kong people would run Hong Kong", Mabel Yau, 52, one of protesters outside the voting site, told The New York Times.
Law - secretary general of the Hong Kong Federation of Students during the protests - said former HKFS officers were also facing charges.
Lam will take the oath of office July 1, the same day Chinese President Xi Jinpingis expected to make a rare visit to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the handover. The committee consists of just 1,200 voters, and is dominated by pro-China delegates.
In the past 15 months, Beijing had arm-twisted a Hong Kong court to remove two elected politicians who promote Hong Kong independence, and likely mainland agents abducted a Hong Kong bookseller critical of China and a high-profile billionaire, fueling fears about the territory's autonomy.
In a speech after the vote, Lam vowed to prioritized mending social rifts.
But election committee members - not ordinary people - pick the chief executive.
Pro-democracy protesters held a rally demanding universal suffrage outside the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre where the election was held yesterday. In a city known for being an global finance hub, where at least a quarter of a million people work in banking, finance and insurance, according to Hong Kong data, only 54 people represent finance, financial services and insurance. Apart from all that, the victor is widely believed to be a foregone conclusion-Beijing's favorite candidate, since China must "endorse" the vote. As the outcome became clear, Mrs Lam's supporters in the public gallery cheered and waved Chinese flags.
The daughter of a Shanghainese immigrant who worked on ships, and a mother who had never received a formal education, Ms Lam grew up in a cramped apartment shared by four siblings and several families.
The new chief executive is "elected to uphold the status quo, not to change it or to punch a hole in it", said Perry Lam, a Hong Kong media analyst and political commentator.
Speaking outside the police station Monday night, Chan said the prosecutions would not deter the fight for democracy. "Why don't we start with the easier subjects first?"
Li was seen shaking hands on Sunday with all three candidates - Lam, Tsang and former Judge Woo Kwok-hing - but still declined to comment on the election result.
Yoshioka: Beijing will demand for the stability of Hong Kong, no matter who wins.
Lam comes from a working-class background, and joined the civil service in 1980 after graduating from the University of Hong Kong.
One notable absence was New World Development's Henry Cheng, who reportedly suffered a stroke in January and didn't show up to cast his ballot.
"Picking Carrie as chief secretary was Leung's best appointment", said a senior government official, who declined to be identified.