Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy says the vote is a violation of the constitution, which he said is "the indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation, the common and indivisible homeland of all Spaniards".
Authorities donned riot gear, confiscated ballot boxes, shot residents with rubber bullets and dragged voters from the polls. More than 460 people were hurt.
Police smashed through the doors of one polling location in an attempt to remove those voting inside.
He added that the police crackdown was "unjustified disproportionate and irresponsible" it shows a "dreadful external image of Spain". "The national police and civil guard are treating us like criminals".
As the votes are counted, the results are predictable, but what unclear is the turnout.
Barcelona FC's La Liga match against Las Palmas has been made to play indoors at Camp Nou after the Spanish league refused to postpone the match on Sunday. Barcelona wanted the game to be postponed, but it said that the Spanish league refused to accept its request.
Catalonia firefighters have shown their support for the region's independence referendum by forming a human barrier between riot police and voters. Spain's police closed almost a hundred polling stations in all, and arrested several protesters. Police also fired rubber bullets. Regional officials said more than 800 people were injured.
"Regardless of views on independence, we should all condemn the scenes being witnessed". "Let people vote peacefully." .
As of Sunday afternoon, referendum results hadn't been officially released. The vote, which ended with a vote to remain in the United Kingdom, featured heated debate but was peaceful.
Hundreds of people were injured as Spanish police used force to try to block voting. Spanish officials had said force wouldn't be used, but that voting wouldn't be allowed. We recall that just one day before the referendum, the police sealed 1,300 polling stations.
He says voter referendums can't be equated with democracy, saying that often they are the "instrument of choice of dictators".