Yorkshire's ground will also be one of the host venues for the new eight-team T20 competition, along with Hampshire's Ageas Bowl - which missed out on an Ashes Test - Lord's, The Oval, Trent Bridge, Edgbaston, Old Trafford and Cardiff.
In a raft of announcements detailing England's domestic and global schedule between 2020 and 2024, plans for the new T20 competition were also revealed. Edgbaston will continue to host T20 Finals Day, while both grounds were handed four Tests in the five-year cycle.
The home of cricket will, however, retain its two Tests per summer alongside its London neighbour, The Oval, to complete the list of six venues that will host the premier worldwide format over the five-year cycle.
As a consolation, Trent Bridge was awarded hosting rights for Test matches in 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2024.
THIS week's reaffirmation of Headingley as one of Test cricket's elite venues should not be under-estimated - it is one of the most significant announcements of the sporting year.
The eight venues for the new competition are as widely expected.
The process was chaired by the European Central Bank deputy chairman, Ian Lovett, and included three independent executives from the world of sport: the former Lawn Tennis Association chief executive John Crowther, Karen Earl, the former chair of the sporting sponsorship agency Synergy, and Mick Hogan, the managing director of Newcastle Falcons. Cardiff received the green light ahead of Bristol and Taunton, despite struggling to bring in the crowds for the format previously.
There was also Ashes disappointment for Nottinghamshire as it was confirmed Trent Bridge will not host a Test between England and Australia in 2023 - as it has in the past two home series of 2013 and 2015.
The Ageas Bowl has never hosted an Ashes Test.
The ECB revealed their plans for the new domestic Twenty20 competition in March 2017. The Ageas Bowl, the Swalec Stadium, Edgbaston, Headingley, the Oval, Lord's, Old Trafford and Trent Bridge were announced as the venues "around which new partnerships would be formed and new teams created".