Meanwhile, Mario Gotze was not included in Germany's preliminary World Cup squad because of his ongoing struggles with Borussia Dortmund.
Liverpool midfielder Emre Can and Borussia Dortmund's Mario Gotze have been left out of Germany's preliminary 35-man squad for this summer's World Cup in Russian Federation.
Barcelona's Marc-Andre ter Stegen has proved a reliable deputy since filling in for Neuer, but Germany's depth at other positions was called into question during a 1-0 loss to Brazil in March.
The 32-year-old Neuer suffered a broken bone in his foot and only returned to training days ago but Germany coach Joachim Loew chose to take four keepers to the training camp in the Italian Alps from May 23-June 5.
"We saw that it was not his season, not the normal form with his quality", Loew told reporters.
The Borussia Dortmund start scored in extra time against Argentina in 2014 to give Germany its fourth World Cup.
"Marco is a special weapon, he has special gifts", Loew said of the forward.
Loew opted for Petersen over Bayern Munich forward Sandro Wagner, giving the Freiburg player his first call-up to the national team after an excellent season.
"We want to thank you for the trust placed in us, which is also an obligation to establish ourselves amongst the best in the world", said Loew directly to Grindel.
They open their World Cup campaign against Mexico on June 17, before fixtures against Sweden (June 23) and South Korea (June 27).
Germany play their last warm-up games against Austria a day later and take on Saudi Arabia in Leverkusen on June 8.