The same day, Turkish media published images of an alleged 15-member Saudi "assassination squad" and video of suspicious movements at the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul following Khashoggi's disappearance, putting new pressure on the kingdom amid growing worldwide concern for the writer.
Saudi authorities have said the journalist left the building after his visit and rejected Turkish police suggestions he might have been killed there.
The Sabah newspaper published images of the men apparently taken at passport control.
Footage of Khashoggi entering the consulate on October 2 was broadcast by private Turkish news channel 24 on Wednesday, followed by a video of a black Mercedes Vito leaving the premises.
The video then cuts away to traffic outside the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul's upscale 4th Levent neighborhood, showing vehicles with green diplomatic license plates.
Saudi officials have dismissed the accusations as "baseless" and claim Khashoggi left the consulate by another exit, but did not provide proof.
Turkey's Hurriyet newspaper and other media alleged Wednesday that the Saudi Consulate's 28 local staff were given leave on October 2 on grounds that a "diplomats' meeting" would be held there on that day.
The next day, according to Turkish security officials, both traveled to the Saudi capital, Riyadh.
The release of the photographs and video raises pressure on Saudi Arabia after Khashoggi disappeared October 2 during a visit to the consulate.
In an off-the-record interview published by the BBC, Khashoggi said he didn't think he'd be able to go back to Saudi Arabia, but still called Mohammad bin Salman's reforms a time of "great transformation" in his country.
On Wednesday, the Post published a column by Khashoggi's fiancée, Hatice Cengiz.
A string of reports on Tuesday added new, shocking details to the disappearance of journalist and dissident Jamal Khashoggi, including accounts of Saudi agents wielding a bone saw and a plea from his fiancée that he be returned home.
But he left Saudi Arabia in 2017, fearing censorship and possible detention at the hands of the Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman.
The UN rights office spokeswoman, Ravina Shamdasani, on Tuesday echoed calls for "a prompt, impartial and independent investigation of the circumstances of Mr Khashoggi's disappearance and to keep the findings public" in comments to journalists in Geneva.
One of the men identified by name and photo in the Sabah report is a Saudi forensic expert, according to Saudi media reports, and is on the board of the Saudi Society of Forensic Medicine.
The Saudi team is said to have arrived at Istanbul's Atatürk airport last Tuesday on two planes, one of which landed in the pre-dawn hours, and the second in the early afternoon.
Before Khashoggi disappeared, U.S. intelligence intercepted communications of Saudi officials discussing a plan to grab him, the Washington Post reported.
Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman Hami Aksoy said Tuesday that Saudi authorities have notified Ankara that they were "open to cooperation" and would allow the consulate building to be searched.