China has disputed Trump's characterization that the country reneged.
But on Sunday Mr Trump said on Twitter that the United States would hike tariffs on $US200b worth of Chinese goods this week and could introduce fresh tariffs.
"The tariffs already in place have cost the American technology sector about $1 billion more a month since October".
Investor focus has zeroed in on trade issues this week with Chinese Vice Premier Liu He expected to try to salvage a deal during negotiations with the United States in Washington on Thursday and Friday.
Talks stalled last week reportedly because the Chinese side opted for regulatory rather than legislative implementation, which could be internally undone more easily. That would avoid a sharp increase in tariffs on Chinese goods scheduled to take effect on Friday. "We've taken well over $100 billion from China in a year".
"I have no idea what's going to happen", Trump said. The Trump administration has also threatened to extend 25 percent tariffs to another $325 billion in Chinese imports, covering everything China ships to the United States. Consumer products, including cell phones, computers, clothing and toys, would be especially hard hit.
"With representatives from both sides meeting for a final time ahead of tomorrow's potential tariffs increase, many will see Trump's tone as yet another move in a high-stakes chess game which clearly has further to run", said Joshua Mahony, senior market analyst at IG.
"We were getting very close to a deal, then they started to renegotiate the deal", said Trump on Thursday in the Roosevelt Room of the White House. We can't have that.
The Chinese stock market was also unlikely to see the same heavy sell-off it experienced a year ago after the trade war began, he said, adding that investors had previously been prone to overreacting due to an inability to judge the real impact of trade frictions and jitters over slowing economic growth.
Hufbauer added that in the event of further escalation, consumers could experience significant price rises for a variety of products, while some United States businesses could suffer.
One Ohioan who supports Trump's proposal to boost tariffs on China is Ohio Republican Sen.
Reuters on Wednesday revealed the extent of the rift that has opened between the two countries, reporting that a draft trade agreement text sent by Beijing on Friday night was riddled with changes that marked reversals in Chinese commitments that undermined core USA demands.
Japan's Nikkei average shed 0.9 percent to its five-week low, while South Korea's KOSPI fell 0.8 percent and the Australian benchmark added 0.3 percent.
Earlier on Thursday in Beijing, China's Ministry of Commerce spokesman Gao Feng also said Liu's visit to the U.S. shows China's "responsible attitude toward and sincerity in advancing consultations".
Many urged the USA government to rethink. "China sets great store on trustworthiness and keeps its promises, and this has never changed", he told a news briefing in Beijing. China vowed to retaliate if the increased tariffs go through. The two sides could end negotiations, given they are so far apart.
Brent crude futures dropped 0.4 percent to $70.03 a barrel, while U.S. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude also retreated 0.5 percent to $61.82 per barrel.
The 150-page, seven-chapter draft of the trade deal addresses complex issues such as ending Beijing's practice of forced technology transfers, implementing better protections for USA intellectual property, and increasing market access for United States firms.
The stripping of binding legal language from the draft struck directly at Lighthizer's highest priority. Industries such as electronics have seen sales to the USA plummet up to 40%.
Later Trump said the US-China trade talks were "candid and constructive", but no deal was reached as new tariffs kicked in.